spirits

Ghosts? Third Order Spirits as Categorized by Spiritism

Learn what third order spirits are as defined by Allan Kardec in The Spirits Book.  I have created a YouTube video on my channel explaining what Allan Kardec codified from his communications with many mediums. Click here for the YouTube video and please subscribe if you would like to view more videos about Spiritism.

According to the Spirit world, we can Detect only 1/8th of the World Around Us

etheralatomIn the book, Workers of the Life Eternal, dictated by Andre Luiz and psychographed by Francisco (Chico) C. Xavier, a spirit comments on the capabilities of incarnates;

“Notwithstanding the progress of scientific investigation, ordinary humans can currently perceive only about one eight of the plane where they spend their existence. Sight and hearing, the two doors that could expand their intellectual research, continue to be greatly restricted.”  Read More.

How can some animals find their way back to home?

Adam-EveIn the Spiritist Knowledge blog, there is an article on animals who find their way home – it is an interesting read.

We are Inspired by Spirits

inspirationThe spirit Zabdiel in his messages to the Rev. G Vale Owen, reveals to us that we are inspired by spirits. And inspiration is given to our hearts, to fortify our strength, to increase our wisdom, and our will to carry out our trials on earth. Other Spiritist authors have documented the same, that we are assisted by the loving presence of good spirits.

Allan Kardec, the Codifier of Spiritism, presented to the world the communications from the Spirit of Truth and other high spirits that we are immortal souls who live life after life to better ourselves; and to one day become pure spirits. Our path to ascension is to fortify our hearts with love, charity, and fraternity for all humankind. And to rid ourselves of the baser emotions of hate, envy, pride, and selfishness.

According to Allan Kardec’s book, The Book on Mediums, written in the 1850s, we are all “Inspirational Mediums”.[i] All of us are influenced by the good and bad spirits around us. Allan Kardec explains:

“Inspiration comes to us all, from Spirits who influence, for good or evil, in every circumstance of our lives, and in every resolution we make, and it may therefore be truly said that, in this respect, every-one is a medium, for there is no one who has not about him his familiar spirits, who do their utmost to suggest salutary or pernicious counsels to those with whom they are connected; aChico_Psicografia_Emmanuel truth which, were we duly penetrated with its reality and importance, would frequently lead us to oppose a more effectual resistance to the suggestions of evil, by seeking the inspiration of our guardian-angel in our moments of uncertainty as to what we should say or do. At such times, we should invoke that watchful guardian with fervor and confidence, as a Providentially-appointed friend; and, if we did so, we should often be astonished at the new ideas which would arise in our minds, as though by enchantment, whether for the taking of an important decision, or for the accomplishing of our special work.”[ii]

We all have had moments of inspiration, flashes of brilliance, which provides some key piece of knowledge that we have been searching for; these sparks are caused by spirits, who chose to influence us. Kardec recommends that we use the gems given to us, but first filter the idea through your conscience and instinct (see how your conscience and instinct are the accumulation of your past lives) to determine the validity of the suggestion.

Allan Kardec goes on to say that people of genius are mediums without being aware of it. These people have the innate sense to call superior spirits to provide the assistance they seek. Allan Kardec completes the section on inspirational mediums with this communication from the Spirit world:

What is the primal cause of inspiration?

“The communication of his thoughts by a spirit”

Is inspiration confined to the revelation of great things?

“No; it often has reference to the most commonplace circumstances of your daily life. for instance, you may have thought of going somewhere, but a secret voice tells you not to go, because there is danger in the way; or it tells you to do something which you have not thought of doing; this is inspiration. There are very few people who are not more or less ‘inspired’ in this way, at certain moment.”[iii]

Through the time and effort Allan Kardec spent with many mediums throughout Europe to codify mind-reading2Spiritism, the act of inspiration by spirits was documented. Although many religions have known this to be a fact for thousands of years, Spiritism gave context and reason for spirits, good and ignorant, to send us thoughts and feelings.

In the 1920s, Zabdiel, a spirit who lives on the tenth level of heaven, added to the discourse of how spirits inspire men and women in Book Two of the book The Life Beyond the Veil called The Highlands of Heaven. He explained to Rev. G. Vale Owen what inspiration from spirit to incarnate really entails; first he spoke about the word inspiration:

 “Now, this is a word very expressive if understood aright; and very misleading if not so understood. For, that we inbreathe into the hearts of men knowledge of the truth of God is true. But it is only a very little of the truth. For more than this we do give to them and, with other things, strength to progress and to work God’s will, love to work that will from high motive, and wisdom (which is knowledge blended with love) to work God’s will aright. And if a man be said to be inspired, this is not a singular case, nor one exceptional. For all who try to live well, and few do not in some degree, are by us inspired, and so helped.”[iv]

Zabdiel went on to explain that breathing in the suggestions from a spirit may not be adequate, it is more like a person absorbs a wave of vibrating energy. Which flows into the body and the mind of the recipient. It may be a feeling of peace or of renewed vitality. Zabdiel supplied us the types of inspirations we receive:

“But we would not limit the meaning of the word to those alone in elegant words tell out to the world some new truth of God, or some old truth refurbished and made as new. The mother tending her child in sickness, the driver of the engine along the railway, the navigator guiding the ship, all, and others, do their work of their peculiar powers self-contained, but, as occasion and circumstances require, modified and supplemented by our own. This is so even when the receiver of our help is unaware of our presence; and this more often than not. We give gladly while we are able; and we are able so long as no barrier is opposed to us by him we would help.”[v]

We may never realize the exact time and circumstances when we are touched and aided by a divine spark. The important point to keep in mind is to open yourself up to let the light in; not to erect fences whereby good intentions are blocked. Zabdiel tells us factors that can cut-off help from on high:

“This barrier may be raised in many ways. If he be of obstinate mind, then we may not impose on him our counsel; for he is free to will and to do. And sometimes when we see great need of our help being given, the barrier of sin is interposed and we cannot get through it. Then those who counsel wrongly do their work, and grievous is the plight of those to whom they minister.”[vi]

Zabdiel, as did Allan Kardec, warns of the advice given by ignorant or inferior spirits. Once we open our gates to hate, envy, selfishness, and pride … we shall be visited by spirits who wish to encourage us in our base behavior. Demonstrating our human weaknesses gives pleasure and entertainment to poor souls who haven’t risen above enjoying other people’s mistakes and pain.

guardian_angelSpirits who mean us harm, do so out of spite, they wish to see and feel the same acts they committed accomplished by others. Temporarily unable to allow love inside themselves, they cling to what they know best and wish the world to do likewise.

To combat unwarranted interference by low spirits cultivate love and caring in everyday life. Zabdiel said, “Kind words later beget kind deeds. And so is love multiplied, and with love, joy and peace. And they who love to give, and give for love’s own sake are shooting golden darts which fall into the streets of the Heavenly City, and are gathered up and carefully stored away till they who sent them come and receive their treasures once again with increase.”[vii]

Hence, love and assistance is everywhere, we merely have to tap into it. We have to make it part of our being and a daily habit. We are told a simple process:

“So do every one these two things – see that your light is kept burning as they who wait for their Lord, for it is His will we do in this matter, and it is His strength we bring. Prayers are allotted us to answer, and His answer is sent by us His servants. So be watchful and wakeful for our coming,charity2 who are of those who came to Him in the wilderness, and in Gethsemane (albeit I think they would be of much higher degree than I).

And the other to bear in your mind is this: See you keep your motive high and noble, and seek not selfishly, but for others’ welfare. We minister best to the progress of those who seek our help for the benefit of their brethren rather than their own. In giving we ourselves receive, and so do you. But the larger part of motive must be to give, as He said, and that way the greater blessing lies, and that for all.”[viii]

We are constantly guided on our path by the spirit world – we just need to keep our heart and mind open. The signs will come to light the way, to select the right option, to find the right person. The 7Tenets-Front-smallmore you expend yourself on others, the greater will be your reward in the afterlife.

To see how we are enveloped by the spirit realm read my book about my personal experiences, 7 Tenets of Spiritism – How They Impact Your Daily Life. You will be surprised at the involvement into the smallest details in our lives by our spirit guardians.

 

Author:

Brian Foster has a BSCS degree and a MBA. He has worked in R&D for medical device corporations and in IT for large financial institutions. Brian Foster has a blog at www.nwspiritism.com.

Works Cited

Kardec, A. (2010). The Book on Mediums. Guildford, England: White Crow Books.

Kardec, A. (2010). The Spirits Book. Guildford, UK: White Crow Books.

Owen, R. G. (2012). The Life Beyond the Veil. Pahrump, NV: Square Circles Publishing.

 

[i] Kardec, Allan, The Book on Mediums, White Crow Books, p.201

[ii] Kardec, Allan, The Book on Mediums, White Crow Books, pp.201-202

[iii] Kardec, Allan, The Book on Mediums, White Crow Books, p.203

[iv] Owen, G. Vale, The Life Beyond the Veil, Square Circles Publishing, pp. 196-197

[v] Owen, G. Vale, The Life Beyond the Veil, Square Circles Publishing, p. 197

[vi] Owen, G. Vale, The Life Beyond the Veil, Square Circles Publishing, p. 197

[vii] Owen, G. Vale, The Life Beyond the Veil, Square Circles Publishing, p. 199

[viii] Owen, G. Vale, The Life Beyond the Veil, Square Circles Publishing, p. 199

Are All Spirits Equally Intelligent?

icelandWe know that not all humans are truly equal. Some are born with a larger capacity to use their full intelligence and some, no matter how hard they try will never approach the intelligence of another. Whether a person chooses to development themselves intellectually is up to their free-will, but nevertheless each person has their own upper limit.

The question is, do all spirits have an equal capacity for intelligence or are some spirits created with an intellectual advantage? Allan Kardec, asked the question in his The Spirits Book:

127. Are all spirits created equal in point of intellectual capacity?

“They are all created equal, but not knowing from whence they come; for their free-will must have its fling. They progress more or less rapidly in intelligence as in morality.”

Therefore, we all start out the same, as a spirit there is no inherent limit, in relation to other spirits, in our intellectual ability. Our development of our abilities, like our spiritual quotient, is up to us.

Intelligence and morality do not necessarily increase together.  We have all seen very intelligent individuals who are morally flawed and we have witnessed the reverse, a nice and loving person who is of average or below intelligence. But, a person’s IQ doesn’t necessarily correspond to their intelligence in the spirit world. The trials selected for a person may entail a cap of their reasoning.

Hence, while our physical world is full of limiting factors, all designed to teach us what we so sorely require, in the spirit world we are literally created equal. Whatever difference in level and talent is a matter of the relative age and desire to improve by each soul.

Spiritism extols the virtue of treating all with respect, while at the same time recognizing some will be superior in intelligence, morality, and character than others. On earth there will be spirits from many BookCover-Reincarnationdifferent levels of maturity and it is the obligation of more advanced spirits to kindly assist spirits at a lower maturity level. This is really what noblesse oblige should mean to all of us, the more fortunate guide the welfare of the less so.

Learn more about the levels of spirits and how we are prepared for life on earth by reading The Case For Reincarnation – Your Path to Perfection.

Spirits Can Detect Our Innermost Thoughts and Feelings

errant-spiritsWe live among spirits, they are undetected by the vast majority of living beings. Spirits are constantly around us. Spirits can be from many levels, some are high spirits and are here for our benefit and some are low. The lower spirits, those that reside in the Lower Zone, or in the Abyss, are there to be, at best to be amused, and at worst to incite us to ignore our conscience and choose the wrong path.

The Spirits Book, codified by Allan Kardec, from surveying multiple mediums throughout Europe to find similar answers to important questions, reveals to us exactly what spirits know about our inner thoughts. In Chapter 9, the first section, titled “Penetration of Our Thoughts By Spirits”, we are told of their capabilities:

456. Do spirits see everything that we do?

“They can do so if they choose, since they are incessantly around you. But, practically, each spirit sees only those things to which he directs his attention; for he pays no heed to those which do not interest him.”

457. Can spirits see our most secret thoughts?

“They often see what you would fain hide from yourselves; neither acts nor thoughts can be hidden from them.”

— It would appear, then, to be more easy to hide a thing from a person while living than to hide it from that same person after his death?

“Certainly; and when you fancy yourselves to be hidden from every eye, you have often a crowd of spirits around you, and watching you.”

458. What is thought of us by the spirits who are about us, and observing us?

“That depends on the quality of the spirits themselves. Frivolous spirits enjoy the little annoyances they cause you, and laugh at your fits of impatience. Graver spirits pity your imperfections, and endeavor to aid you to cure yourselves of them.”

In essence, by reading our thoughts, our emotions, analyzing our ratiocination process, spirits may know us better that we do ourselves. Spirits are us, or to turn it around, we are spirits who happen to temporarily inhabit a physical body. A body which greatly inhibits our senses, intellect, and movement. The spacesuit we don when we come into this world purposely restrains our capabilities so we may acquire the emotional and moral lessons we are on earth to obtain.

One may question if being fitted for an inferior suit and immersed in an environment where one is constantly bombarded by mostly poor or downright abhorrent advice is the correct path to acquire lessons of any sort. Upon reflection of our goal, to love, be honest, charitable, fraternal to all in any circumstance, while at the same time remaining focused, direct, and effective in completing any given assignment, then we must conclude that we are in the prefect training ground.

Many, and I include myself in this group, do not particularly enjoy our time on earth. We wish for a better, less stressful life. We want a life where everyone works together without the violence, politics, and stepping over others to acquire more material goods. We wish for a panacea, we wish to live in a regenerative world, the next step up from the world of atonement that we live in now.

Well, the answer is; if you don’t like where you are now, then finish your training.


KindleCoverIf you wish to learn more about Spiritism, learn about what has been told to us by reading 51 Disclosures from Spiritism, The 3rd Revelation.

 

YouTube – Influences of Spirits in Our Lives

Kardec-JesusThere are now English subtitles on some of the videos from Allan Kardec TV. They are in Portuguese, but they are very well done and I believe you will find them very informative. This one covers how spirit influence our lives.

YouTube Link.

Progression of Spirits – The Spirits Book

The one must read book in the series of book about Spiritism

The Spirits Book

To understand the beginnings of the Third Revelation, one should read the first book codified by Allan Kardec. I have written elsewhere about how Allan Kardec created his books. In this entry, I am merely reprinting his series of questions of the progress of spirits. The section is in Book Two and begins at Question 114.


Progression of Spirits

114. Are spirits good or bad by nature, or are they the same spirits made better through their own efforts?

“The same spirits made better through their own efforts. In growing better they pass from a lower to a higher order.”

115. Are some spirits created good and others created bad?

“God has created all spirits in a state of simplicity and ignorance, that is to say, without knowledge. He has given to each of them a mission, with a view to enlighten them and to make them gradually arrive at perfection through the knowledge of the truth, and thus to bring them nearer and nearer to Himself. This perfection is, for them, the condition of eternal and unalloyed happiness. Spirits acquire knowledge by passing through the trials imposed on them by God. Some of them accept these trials with submission, and arrive more quickly at the aim of their destiny others undergo them with murmuring, and thus remain, through their own fault, at a distance from the perfection and the felicity promised to them.”

— According to this statement, it would appear that spirits, at their origin, are like children, ignorant and without experience, but acquiring, little by little, the knowledge which they lack, by passing through the different phases of human life?

“Yes; the comparison is correct. The child, if rebellious, remains ignorant and faulty; he profits more or less according to his docility. But the life of man has a term; whereas that of spirits stretches out into infinity.”

116. Do any spirits remain forever in the lower ranks?

“No; all become perfect. They change in course of time, however long may be the process of amendment; for, as we have already said, a just and merciful parent cannot condemn his children to eternal banishment. Can you suppose that God, so great, so good, so just, is less kind than you are?”

117. Does it depend on the spirits themselves to hasten their progress towards perfection?

“Certainly; they reach the goal more or less quickly according to the strength of their desire and the degree of their submission to the will of God. Does not a docile child learn faster than one who is obstinate and idle?”

118. Can spirits degenerate?

“No; in proportion as they advance, they understand what has retarded their progress. When a spirit has finished with any given trial, he has learned the lesson of that trial, and never forgets it. He may remain stationary; but be never degenerates.”

119. Could God exonerate spirits from the trials which they have to undergo in order to reach the highest rank?

“If they had been created perfect, they would not have merited the enjoyment of the benefits of that perfection. Where would be the merit without the struggle? Besides, the inequality which exists between spirits is necessary to the development of their personality; and, moreover, the mission which each spirit accomplishes at each step of his progress is an element of the providential plan for ensuring the harmony of the universe.”

Since, in social life, all men may reach the highest posts, we might as well ask why the sovereign of a country does not make a general of each of his soldiers, why all subaltern functionaries are not made heads of departments, why all scholars are not schoolmasters. But there is this difference between the life of the social and the spirit worlds, namely, that the first is limited, and does not afford to every one the possibility of raising himself to the highest rank whereas the second is unlimited, and ensures to every one the possibility of attaining to supreme degree.

120. Do all spirits pass by the road of evil to arrive at good?

“Not by the road of evil, but by that of ignorance.”

121. How is it that some spirits have followed the road of good, and others the road of evil?

“Have they not their free-will? God has not created any spirits bad; He has created them simple and ignorant, that is to say, possessing an equal aptitude for good and for evil. Those who become bad become so of their own free-will.”

122. How can spirits, at their origin, when they have not yet acquired self-consciousness, possess freedom of choice between good and evil? Is there in them any principle, any tendency, which inclines them towards either road rather than towards the other?

“Free-will is developed in proportion as the spirit acquires the consciousness of himself. Freedom would not exist for the spirit if his choice were solicited by a cause independent of his will. The cause which determines his choice is not in him, but is exterior to him, in the influences to which he voluntarily yields in virtue of the freedom of his will. It is this choice that is represented under the grand figure of the fall of man and of original sin. Some spirits have yielded to temptation; others have withstood it.”

— Whence come the influences that act upon him?

“From the imperfect spirits, who seek to take possession of him and to dominate him, and who are happy to see him succumb. It is this temptation that is allegorically pictured as Satan.”

— Does this influence act upon a spirit only at its origin?

“It follows him through all the phases of his existence as a spirit, until he has acquired such thorough self-command that evil spirits renounce the attempt to obsess him.”


 

There you have it, we start ignorant, without knowledge of good and bad. Unable to decipher the right road to follow, until through a series of incarnations, we learn, usually the hard way, between good and evil actions. We are told there are no short cuts, no hidden doors to advancement, except through grueling experiences in body after body.

It doesn’t end until the last statement in Question 122 – “until he has acquired such thorough self-command that evil spirits renounce the attempt to obsess him”. Only through strictly adhering to the dictates of our conscience, never wavering from the Golden Rule, in all circumstances will be finally be able to be free of trials. Therefore, if you wish to end your financial worries, solve all relationship conundrums, remove all traces of ill-health and aging, the answer is before you. Become a calm, upright, honorable port in rough seas. Don’t allow your undesirable emotions to get the best of you. Explore-Small-front-coverBe a friend to all, a mentor to all, a beacon of light to all. Only thus, shall the entirety of your problems dissolve.

To further add to your understanding of the spirit world, I recommend you read my book, which covers the workings of the spirit world and how they enable our progress in life after life, in my book, Explore Your Destiny – Since Your Life’s Path is (mostly) Predetermined.

Learn how you are being prepared to be a higher spirit by surviving the trials that have been assignedKindle-FrontCover to you. Read The Problem is the Solution: 7 Life Complications Sent to Test and Teach You.

 

Sight and Touch as a Spirit

beyondTheVeilHow does a spirit see and touch? G. Vale Owen’s mother tells him from the other side.

In the Reverend Owen’s book, which is a collection of four of his books, Life Beyond the Veil, in The Lowlands of Heaven section, where his mother tells him about her life and work in the first level of heaven, there is a short paragraph where she describes how a spirit sees an incarnate. Vale Owen asks his mother, “Are you able to see me as I sit here writing?”

She responds:

“We do see you, but with other eyes than yours. Our eyes are not accustomed to the effect ofdreams-mirror light as you have it on earth. Our light is of a different kind, a sort of interpenetrating element by which we are able to discern your inmost mind, and that is it to which we speak – to you yourself and not, of course, to your outward ears. So it is yourself we see, and not your material body, which is but an enveloping robe.”[1]

Spirits are creatures of an invisible world to us, but our world is not transparent to them. They can see right through our flesh and blood and determine the location of our spirit. Our thoughts are as open as a baby’s feelings. And, whether we know it are not, we receive communication from spirits.

mind-reading2This transfer of messages is constant, for thoughts from humans and spirits are transmitted like radio waves. A small minority of us are able to discern a miniscule portion of the tidal wave of ideas and emotion which roll over us. I have no talent in that direction, but I do wonder if my good or bad ideas at any particular time are really my own, or am I subconsciously translating the ether of pure contemplations that I move about in like a fog.

Our ability to filter the positive radiations from the negative is one of the reasons why we are sent here. We are directed to learn to use our conscience to correctly collate the worthwhile ideas while discarding any notion which may cause physical or emotional harm to ourselves or others. Sounds like the teenage years! The analogy is valid, for we are on earth to start to build real character.

G. Vale Owen’s mother also explains what it means when a spirit touches you:

“When we touch you, therefore, you do not feel the touch physically but spiritually, and if you wish to apprehend our touch, you will have to keep this in mind and look deeper than the body and its mechanical brain.”[2]

We are being told that our brain has inherent limits. Our spirit is connected to our body (and brain) via the perispirit. It is the perispirit that transmits all data back and forth. Our physical brain is not able to receive the full knowledge of our spirit selves. That would be too much and hinder our educational process while in our present state. But we can teach ourselves to inwardly peer into our 7Tenets-Front-smallspiritual side and begin to sense the warmth of our spiritual mentors.

We can learn to go with the flow of life by learning to read the signs of virtuous spiritual guidance. I describe how one can accomplish this in my book, 7 Tenets of Spiritism – How They Impact Your Daily Life.

Keep in mind at the end of the day, we are immortal spirits. Our physical selves areReincarnationBook-Small-3d but temporary casings, more like spacesuits, so we can descend to earth, and live in this dense dimension. Learn all about the spirit world and how they prepare us, in life after life to one day graduate to be a pure spirit in my book, The Case for Reincarnation – Your Path to Perfection.

Author:

Brian Foster has a BSCS degree and a MBA. He has worked in R&D for medical device corporations and in IT for large financial institutions. Brian Foster has a blog at www.nwspiritism.com.

Works Cited

Owen, R. G. (2012). The Life Beyond the Veil. Pahrump, NV: Square Circles Publishing.

 

[1] Owen R. G. Life Beyond the Veil, Squares Circles Publishing, p. 18

[2] Owen R. G. Life Beyond the Veil, Squares Circles Publishing, p. 18

Results of an Experiment to Detect the Presence of Spirits

Gary_PhotoI first noticed Dr. Schwartz when I came across a YouTube video, where he gave a presentation to the 7th Annual Spiritist Society in Dallas, Texas. The lecture was on his research into the existence of spirits. Using equipment to detect photons, he invited spirits to go into dark chambers. He showed pre, during, and post measurements. The data clearly illustrated a dramatic rise of photons during the time spirits were inside the dark chamber.[i]

He arranged with a medium to set up a fixed hour for the spirit to enter the chamber. He showed the absence of any photons until the time appointed, then photons were detected. To disprove his colleagues’ suggestions that his positive thinking or the thoughts of his assistants influenced the test, he arranged to have the medium determine the hour of the visitation. He demonstrated that even in this manner the instrument would detect the presence of photons at the time determined by the medium, who did not know the location of the chamber.

Here is a graph of his results: Photo-test-resutls1.emf

What is shows is that only when a spirit is requested to enter the chamber at a specific time, does the instrument detect a large amount of photons as opposed to when the spirit has agreed to not enter the chamber.

The experiment was accomplished by asking two spirits to enter the chamber as separate times, and this is the result:

Photo-test-resutls2.emf

Again, one can see, when the spirits Sophia and Harry were requested to enter the chamber the instrument detected a greater number of photons than when the chamber was purportedly empty.

Below is a link to the pdf for the experiment. Please read it for yourself.

GES_EXPLORE_Silicon_Photomultipier_2010

Does this prove the existence of spirits, no, but it does raise questions of how could a photon detector measure different levels of photons in a chamber that is kept dark, while allowing for leakage into the chamber, the level still rises considerably when spirits are requested to enter at specific times and periods.

This is one more step in revealing the possibility that we are indeed in a world filled with phenomena 7Tenets-Front-smallwe can’t explain. That we live in a world which intersects with spirits, spirits who are able to communicate with a portion of humans with mediumistic ability. Learn how to travel through life swimming in an atmosphere of spirits by reading my book, 7 Tenets of Spiritism – How They Impact Your Daily Life and discover for yourself the magnificent world we really live in. Find out that you are an immortal spirit and that you too have roamed the earth in spirit form, while between lives.

[[i]] Schwartz, Dr. Gary, 7th U.S. Spiritist Symposium – The Truth About Medium by Gary Schwartz, PhD, YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_u7RqklxNnA, (accessed Aug. 2, 2015)

 

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