In the book, The Spiritist Review, Journal of Psychological Studies, 1859, which contains all of the articles in the 12 issues of Allan Kardec’s magazine for the year 1859, there is an account on a spirit which came unannounced to a mediums meeting. The chapter, Scenes of the Spirit’s Private Life, which starts at page 201, discusses the life of a spirit who wanders the earth. The spirit, who was a bit of a rough neck, died at the age of young age of twenty. He was neither evil nor good. When he passed away he wasn’t exiled to the worse sections of the Lower Zones, he was sentenced to stay on the surface with us. Read More.
“Light and darkness are states of the spirit, as you know. When those dwelling in the darkness cry for light, that means that they are become out of touch with their environment. So we send them what help is needed; and that is usually direction by which they find their way – not into regions of light, where they would be in torture, and utterly blinded, but – into a region less dark, and tinctured by just so much of light as they may bear until they outgrow that state and cry in their longing for more.”
Zabdiel, a spirit who lives on the tenth level of heaven, reveals how souls are assisted to slowly rise out of the depths of purgatory (called the abyss in Spiritist literature) in Book Two of the book The Life Beyond the Veil called The Highlands of Heaven. He tells the Rev. G. Vale Owen how spirits rise toward the light.
According to Spiritism, spirits who are in the abyss are there because they have not learned how to let the love of God permeate their beings. They still harbor materialistic bonds to earth and allow the baser emotions of envy, hate, and thirst for revenge rule over them.
When physical death occurs, a soul travels to the region where there are others similar to him or her. Hence, when a mean-spirited person lives amongst like-minded caustic people, the experience gets old fast. It is the Spirituality’s method to let us know if we really enjoy living with people just the same as us. All, at one time or another, discover there is a better way. They begin to understand the need to allow love to enter, and as they change their attitude they also transform their composition.
As spirits rise from the lower levels to each successive stage in heaven, they become lighter, less dense, and brighter. A spirit glows from the reflected love they have absorbed. Zabdiel explains the process of moving from a lower region to a higher sphere:
“When a spirit leaves a dark region for one less dark he experiences an immediate sense of relief and comfort by comparison with his former state. For now his environment is on harmony with his own inner state of development. But as he continues to develop in aspiration after good, he gradually becomes out of harmony with his surroundings, and then, in ratio to his progress, so his discomfort increases until it becomes not less than agony. Then in his helplessness, and approaching near to despair, have come to that pass when his own endeavors can go no further, he cries for help to those who are able to give it in God’s Name, and they enable him one stage onward nearer to the region where dimness, rather than darkness, reigns. And so he at last comes to the place where light is seen to be light; and his onward way is henceforth not through pain and anguish, but from joy to greater joy, and hence to glory and glory greater still.”
Zabdiel explained the process, but he also desires for us to understand that life with others who are also dark and cruel is not meant as a punishment, but as an object lesson. A direct method to allow the soul in question to form her or his own opinion as to the correct course of action. Zabdiel tells us more:
“But do not mistake my words of their meaning. This is no vengeance of an angry God, my ward and friend. God is our Father, and He is Love. All this sorrow is of necessity, and is ordered by those laws which govern the sowing, and the reaping of that which is sown. Even here, in my own place, where many things both wonderful and lovely we have learned, yet not yet have we attained to plumb and sound this mystery to its lowest depth. We do understand, as we were unable when in the earth life, that it is of love that these things are ordained. I say we are able to understand where formerly we were able but to say we trusted and believed. Yet little more of this awful mystery do we know; and are content to wait until it is made more plain to us. For we know enough to believe that all is wise and good; as those in those in dark hells will know one day. And this is our comfort that they will and must be drawn onward and upward into this great and beautiful universe of light, and that then they will confess, not only that what is is just, but that it is of love and wisdom too, and be content.”
We are told, that like children being disciplined, we rebel against authority, but as we grow older we understand what our parents were trying to teach us. Older still, we comprehend the reason and the method used. The lessons given to us are given in love. Affording us a path to improve is a sign of the love that God has for us. Our trying our best is a sign that we return the love of God.
The first place is to learn what the basic tenets of Spiritism are and how your life is planned so you can improve. You can begin by reading The Spirits Book, by Allan Kardec, or you can read my book, about how the trials we are presented on earth help to prepare us for the path upward, The Problem is the Solution – 7 Life Complications Sent to Test and Teach You.
Kardec, A. (2010). The Spirits Book. Guildford, UK: White Crow Books.
Owen, R. G. (2012). The Life Beyond the Veil. Pahrump, NV: Square Circles Publishing.
 Owen, G. Vale, The Life Beyond the Veil, Square Circles Publishing, p. 189
 Owen, G. Vale, The Life Beyond the Veil, Square Circles Publishing, pp. 189-190
 Owen, G. Vale, The Life Beyond the Veil, Square Circles Publishing, p. 190
Learn what third order spirits are as defined by Allan Kardec in The Spirits Book. I have created a YouTube video on my channel explaining what Allan Kardec codified from his communications with many mediums. Click here for the YouTube video and please subscribe if you would like to view more videos about Spiritism.
A group of high spirits – sent from the tenth level of heaven – journeyed down to the Lower Zone. They were sent on orders from above to free souls who have been trapped in a wretched life of materialism and base emotions, and were ready to peer upwards to the light for inspiration. At the end of their mission, the high spirits had amassed 144,000 people from the lower regions of the spirit realm and led them to a new city. Read More.
Good, high spirits, descend into the Lower Zones and below to help poor souls trapped in an atmosphere of ignorance and malevolence. Often they stand passive, awaiting a call for help or an opportunity to assist. But, there are times when action is called for. Here is one such example. Read More.
Discarnate humans who have chosen to reside in the Lower Zone – a region of relative darkness – where they exist until they begin to thirst after light and love … are not left to their own devices to find their way to heaven. They are helped and guided. Read More.
Spiritism reveals to us that we are imperfect souls on a quest to become pure spirits. What many considered bad spirits, demons, or manifestations of the devil are spirits who have not yet learned the true path to goodness. They are ignorant, immature, or rebellious spirits who reject the hard path to perfection required.
Allan Kardec’s, The Spirits Book, tells us the answer in Question 131. Are there any demons in the usual acceptation of that term?
“Men have done in regard to devils what they have done in regard to angels. Just as they have imagined that there are beings who were created perfect from all eternity, so they have imagined that spirits of the lower degrees were beings essentially and eternally bad. The words demon, devil, ought, therefore, to be understood as indicating impure spirits who are often no better that the imaginary beings designated by those names, but with this difference, namely, that their state of impurity and inferiority is only transitory. They are the imperfect spirits who rebel against the discipline of trial to which they are subjected, and who, therefore, have to undergo that discipline for a longer period, but who will, nevertheless, reach the goal in time, when they shall have made up their minds to do so. The words demon, devil, might accordingly be employed in this sense; but as they have come to be understood exclusively as conveying the meaning now shown to be false, their employment might lead into error by seeming to recognize the existence of beings specially created for evil.”
“As regards the term “Satan,” it is evidently a personification of the principle of evil under an allegorical form for it is impossible to admit the existence of a being who fights against God as an independent and rival power, and whose sole business in life is to contravene His designs. As images and figures are necessary in order to strike the human imagination, men have pictured to themselves the beings of the incorporeal world under a material form, with attributes indicative of their good or bad qualities. It is thus that the ancients, wishing to personify the idea of time, represented it under the figure of an old man with a scythe and an hour-glass. To have
personified it under the figure of a youth would have been contrary to common sense. The same may be said of the allegories of Fortune, Truth, etc. The moderns have represented the angels or pure spirits under the form of radiant beings with white Wings-emblem of purity Satan, with horns, claws, and the attributes of bestiality-emblems of the lowest Passions; and the vulgar, prone to understand such representations literally, have taken these allegorical embodiments of abstract ideas for real personalities, as they formerly did in regard to the allegorical personifications of the old mythology.”
Hence, what are considered evil spirits in many religions and superstitions are actually poor unfortunate souls who haven’t yet ascended. They are there to take advantage of people in their time of weakness or want. One day, with our help and help from the spirit world they shall learn that the path of love and kindness is superior to all others.
We, in physical form, on earth, forget the multitude of souls who are trapped in a narrow band on or near the surface. These are spirits who wander the Lower Zone. They haven’t the spiritual fortitude to understand how to ascend to the first level of heaven, where they will be safe and supported. Instead, they are subjected to cruelties and injustices that stretch our imagination.
Jesus doesn’t forget these souls, all are his children. He sends spiritual workers out to recover as many as possible. Those who are ready to follow the light will receive assistance.
The Reverend Owen’s mother, who communicated to him in his book, which is a collection of four of his books, Life Beyond the Veil, in The Lowlands of Heaven section, talks about one such rescue operation. She tells us:
“We received a message a short time ago of the arrival of a sister at the Bridge, who had come over from the further side where lie the regions of gloom, and I and another were sent to conduct her to this Home. We went quickly and found our charge awaiting us. She was quite alone, for her attendants had left her thus in order that she might profit by a quiet period of meditation and reflection before beginning her further advance.”
One can detect the extent of the spirit organization. First there are guides who find a willing soul in the Lower Zone, then others are notified to pick up a spirit at a specified place to finish the trip from just inside the Bridge to a colony where she could receive treatment.
The Bridge is a gateway from the Lower Zones to heaven. There are many such portals. Each one is guarded, so as to not allow unrepentant spirits entry. Only those who have demonstrated a true desire to change are allowed.
Next, the group finds their woman:
“She was seated on a slope of grass under a tree whose branches spread like a canopy over her. Her eyes were closed, and we stood before her waiting. When she opened them she looked at us for some time in an inquiring manner. As she did not speak, I at last addressed her ‘Sister’. At that word she looked at us hesitatingly, and then her eyes begin to fill with tears, and she put her face in her hands, bowed her head upon her knees, and wept bitterly.
So I went to her and laid my hand upon her head and said, ‘You are our sister now, dear, and as we do not weep, so neither must you.’
‘How do you know who or what I am?’ she replied, as she raised her face and tried to force back her tears, while there was just a touch of defiance in her voice.
‘We do not know who you are,’ I answered.
‘What you were we do know. We know that you were always a child of our Father, and so, always our sisters. Now you are our sister in a fuller sense. What else you are lies with you. You are either one whose face is set toward the Sunshine of His Presence, or one who, fearing the task before you in that direction, will turn back again across the Bridge.’
She was silent for a while, and then said, ‘I dare not. It is all too horrible over there.’
‘But,’ I urged, ‘you must choose; for you cannot remain where you are. And you will come the upward way, will you not? – and we will lend you a sister’s hand and give you a sister’s love to help you on the way.’
‘Oh, I wonder how much you know of what lies yonder,’ she said, and there was agony in her voice. ‘There they called me sister, too; they called me sister in mockery, while they heaped upon me infamy and torture and – oh, I must not think of it or it will drive me mad again. But I don’t know how I shall proceed; I am so stained and vile and weak.’”
The group helped the woman stand up and make her way toward their destination. A place where the poor soul could recover in peace. But as she made progress, the group could discern that something was holding her back.
They found out that when she was detected near the opening of the Bridge, a spirit worker went out to help her. Since the spirit worker was at a higher level, she couldn’t see her, but felt a presence. Being afraid, she shouted out, “May you be cursed if you touch me!”
After that she blacked out and awoke on the other side of the Bridge, awaiting the group that came to help her. She felt terrible about the curse she made, to one who had come to assist her.
For us, on earth, the mere speaking of words in fear or anger, would be quickly forgotten. But, in the spirit world, where thought is action, such negative announcements have real meaning.
Vale Owen’s mother takes us through the reasoning:
“She had cursed one of God’s ministers, and she was afraid of the light because the words were evil. Truly, she did not know whom she had cursed; but a curse is a curse against whomever directed, and it lay upon her heart.”
The group headed back to the gate, where the kind spirit, a high spirit, knew of her desire for forgiveness waited for them. With love in his heart, he smiled and blessed the unfortunate woman.
Then, once more, the group made their way to the house where she would be allowed to recuperate from her ordeal.
I have written about the constant guidance and love that we walk in every day in my book, 7 Tenets of Spiritism – How They Impact Your Daily Life. We are not cast off onto a strange planet with an uncertain future without support. We are watched over and subtlety pushed forward to finish our assigned trials. Whereupon, if we have tried with all of our might and treated most people with respect and honor, we too shall enter that narrow gate to heaven.
Owen, R. G. (2012). The Life Beyond the Veil. Pahrump, NV: Square Circles Publishing.
 Owen R. G. Life Beyond the Veil, Squares Circles Publishing, p. 97
 Owen R. G. Life Beyond the Veil, Squares Circles Publishing, pp. 97-98
 Owen R. G. Life Beyond the Veil, Squares Circles Publishing, p. 99
 Owen R. G. Life Beyond the Veil, Squares Circles Publishing, pp. 99-100
Third Order spirits are the least advanced spirits around the sphere of earth. They exist close to the surface, a little above and below the crust. Many walk around us in everyday life; observing and participating. Third Order spirits are those of us who have left this life in either one or more in these conditions (I have created broad categories):
- Lack of Spirituality – There are many good people who don’t believe in an afterlife. Hence, when they awaken and find themselves still on earth they are confused. These spirits are helped by second order spirits to realize where they are. The vast majority ascend fairly rapidly.
- Rebellious – Some spirits don’t want to recognize the existence of a Supreme Being. Hence, they remain where their bodies decompose, on earth, until they determine the beauty of life is in serving. Strong-willed and usually intelligent, when they are ready, they have the capacity to rise quickly in the spirit hierarchy.
- Materialist – Lived life dedicated to the amassing of wealth. Most or everything else took a lower priority. Being miserly is an example. Spirits who worship their property above all else, find they are still tied to earth and can’t leave it.
- Selfish – Never thought of others, their needs always came first. Like the materialist, life was about what could be done on earth.
- Criminal – A combination of materialism and selfishness, with a violent streak and a complete lack of respect for others. They will be in the right place when they pass on. Eventually, they will tire of existing in a world full of souls similar to them and seek to improve.
- Suicides –They left life on earth before their appointed time. Unfortunately for them, they will have to reside around the earth until they were fated to expire. The Spirituality frowns on people who cut classes. This includes “unconscious suicides”; a spirit term for those who killed themselves by dangerous behavior, such as drinking and drug addiction.
There is a complete description of the third order of spirits in Allan Kardec’s, The Spirits Book, starting at question 101. Third order spirits, while in the spirit realm, are composed of more matter than spirit energy. They are denser than higher spirits. Lower spirits are unable to detect the presence of higher spirits, unless the higher spirits consciously make themselves as dense as lower spirits.
“101. General Characteristics.–Predominant influence of matter over spirit. Propensity to evil. Ignorance, pride, selfishness, and all the evil passions which result from these.
They have the intuition of the existence of God, but they have no comprehension of Him.
They are not all of them thoroughly bad; in many of them there is more of frivolity, want of reasoning power, and love of mischief, than of downright wickedness. Some of them do neither good nor evil; but the very fact that they do no good denotes their inferiority. Others, on the contrary, take pleasure in evil, and are gratified when they find an opportunity of doing wrong.
Among spirits of this order, a certain amount of intelligence is often allied with malice and the love of mischief; but, whatever may be their intellectual development, their ideas are wanting in elevation, and their sentiments are more or less abject.
Their knowledge of the things of the spirit-world is narrow, and the little they know about them is confused with the ideas and prejudices of the corporeal life. They can give only false and incomplete notions of the spirit-world; but the attentive observer may always find in their communications, however imperfect, the confirmation of the great truths proclaimed by spirits of the higher orders.
Their character is revealed by their language. Every spirit who, in his communications, betrays an evil intention, may be ranged in the third order; consequently every evil thought suggested to our mind comes to us from a spirit of that order.
They see the happiness enjoyed by good spirits, and this sight causes them perpetual torment; for they experience all the agonies produced by envy and jealousy.
They preserve the remembrance and the perception of the sufferings of corporeal life; and this impression is often more painful than the reality. They suffer, in fact, both from the ills they have themselves endured, and from those which they have caused to be endured by others. And as these sufferings endure for a very long time, they believe themselves to be destined to suffer forever. God, for their punishment, wills that they should believe this.”[i]
Third order spirits are the unseen souls that we come into contact the most. Our brains pick up, subconsciously, their thoughts. We are on earth to learn to filter out the suggestions made to us by these types of spirits. This is why we have a conscience, so we may use the full set of Divine Laws that God implants inside each one of us, to determine what is right and wrong.
When a person pays a medium for advice or a group of untrained people hold a séance, these are the types of spirits which are attracted. The level of the medium or group calling for spirits determines the level of the spirits who come. Hence, morally and spiritually advanced mediums will attract higher order spirits. While at the other end of the spectrum, the local fortune teller or the Ouija Board users will communicate with lower spirits. The information you receive from third order spirits should not be fully trusted.
Allan Kardec breaks down the third order spirits into more categories:
“103. Ninth Class–Frivolous Spirits.–They are ignorant, mischievous, unreasonable, and addicted to mockery. They meddle with everything, and reply to every question without paying any attention to truth. They delight in causing petty annoyances, in raising false hopes of petty joys, in misleading people by mystifications and trickery. The spirits vulgarly called hobgoblins, will-o’-the-wisps, gnomes, etc., belong to this class. They are under the orders of spirits of a higher category, who make use of them as we do of servants.
In their communications with men their language is often witty and facetious, but shallow. They are quick to seize the oddities and absurdities of men and things, on which they comment with sarcastic sharpness. If they borrow distinguished names, as they are fond of doing, it is rather for the fun of the thing than from any intention to deceive by so doing.
104. Eighth Class–Spirits who Pretend to more Science than they Possess.–Their knowledge is often considerable, but they imagine themselves to know a good deal more than they know in reality. Having made a certain amount of progress from various points of view, their language has an air of gravity that may easily give a false impression as to their capacities and enlightenment; but their ideas are generally nothing more than the reflection of the prejudices and false reasoning of their terrestrial life. Their statements contain a mixture of truths and absurdities, in the midst of which traces of presumption, pride, jealousy, and obstinacy, from which they have not yet freed themselves, are abundantly perceptible.
105. Seventh Class–Neutral Spirits.–They are not sufficiently advanced to take an active part in doing good, nor are they bad enough to be active in doing wrong. They incline sometimes to the one, sometimes to the other; and do not rise above the ordinary level of humanity, either in point of morality or of intelligence. They are strongly attached to the things of this world, whose gross satisfactions they regret.
106. Sixth Class–Noisy and Boisterous Spirits.–Spirits of this kind do not, strictly speaking, form a distinct class in virtue of their personal qualities; they may belong to all the classes of the third order. They often manifest their presence by the production of phenomena perceptible by the senses, such as raps, the movement and abnormal displacing of solid bodies, the agitation of the air, etc. They appear to be, more than any other class of spirits, attached to matter; they seem to be the principal agents in determining the vicissitudes of the elements of the globe, and to act upon the air, water, fire, and the various bodies in the entrails of the earth. Whenever these phenomena present a character of intention and intelligence, it is impossible to attribute them to a mere fortuitous and physical cause. All spirits are able to produce physical phenomena; but spirits of elevated degree usually leave them to those of a lower order, more apt for action upon matter than for the things of intelligence, and, when they judge it to be useful to produce physical manifestations, employ spirits of subaltern degree as their auxiliaries.”[ii]
For those who wish to learn more about different types of mediums and how to determine the level of the spirit you are communicating with, I highly recommend The Mediums Book, by Allan Kardec.
All of us need to be aware of the world around us and who is trying to influence us so we can learn how to guard against ruinous advice and onslaughts against holding our emotions in check.
To fully comprehend from where we come from, how we ascend to how we are guided on during our trials on earth, read my book, Explore Your Destiny – Since Your Life’s Path is (mostly) Predetermined. It will inform you of what the Doctrine of Spiritism has revealed to us through the works of many mediums.
All of us, even at a personal level are herded and watched as we progress. To understand how each individual is pushed along the track. Read my book, 7 Tenets of Spiritism – How They Impact Your Daily Life, to realize the force of the unseen power which affects each detail of our destiny.
Kardec, A. (2010). The Book on Mediums. Guildford, England: White Crow Books.
Kardec, A. (2010). The Spirits Book. Guildford, UK: White Crow Books.
[i] Kardec, A, The Spirits Book, White Crow Books, Book 2, Question 101
[ii] Kardec, A, The Spirits Book, White Crow Books, Book 2, Questions 103-106
The Reverend G. Vale Owen, who is the author of the Life Beyond the Veil, a compilation of four books, all dictated to him by spirits, including his mother, also wrote another book. It is called Paul and Albert, and it was sent to him by a team of spirits. The spirit who was responsible for communicating directly with Vale Owen was called Kathleen.
Paul and Albert is a short book, which covers the decent and subsequent ascent of Paul in the Lower Zone. In the book, there was an interesting interlude, where Kathleen talked about unprogressed human spirits. I thought this may explain the characteristics of some of the people around us.
We first notice the relatively immature human spirit in a church. It is in the Lower Zone and it is a place for suffering souls to go to hear positive messages so they can find their way out and into a better place. Spirits from higher levels will materialize in the church and talk to the souls gathered there.
The spirit giving the sermon, opens the talk and then he starts to delineate what he wants the assembly to understand:
“Meanwhile, I have a few rather interesting things to show you. I brought them with me for that purpose, so that you would be able to picture for yourselves, to a certain degree, what life is like there.
I can assure you it is well worth working for, very well worth it. Even just a short journey from the Gate the people have houses like this and, mark you, many of those people have come, not direct from earth life, but from this land where you now live. This is not a very happy country to live in is it? Ah well, never mind that; live in the future and you will soon be able to go yonder and, after a time, to come back and help your mates whom you have left behind.
‘Now, isn’t that worth a bit of patience and endeavor?’
‘Yes, it is!’ shouted out a man in the congregation.
‘Damn well worth it, too!’ added another, more enthusiastic.”
While many in the Lower Zones were well-educated souls while they lived in their physical bodies, they drifted to this place because of a lack of spirituality and they didn’t treat their fellow human beings with love and honesty. They were primarily selfish and materialistic.
The talk about houses was attractive to the congregation, because the dwellings in the Lower Zone are usually ramshackle affairs, with exceptions. Even worse, the light is constantly dim and vegetation is primitive and lacking in color.
Kathleen provides a description of the enthusiastic speaker, she explains about a certain type of soul who has gravitated to the Lower Zone:
“The man who had created this diversion was a horse breeder in a large way in the earth life, a man of great wealth. To see him now his friends of those old days would have been somewhat surprised. He turned about and surveyed the audience with a smile and the attitude of a pleased schoolboy.
Then he sat down well contented. He was of a nature unprogressed rather than malicious – a low type of the human species. There are many such. They do not descend to the lower hells on leaving earth. They just go to their own place; which is where we have seen him, on the borderline between light and shadow.
Here they are unhappy for a time, but the same lack of spiritual conception which places them there acts also as a counter-irritant. They soon begin to adjust themselves to their environment, and find more or less of ease because it is in sympathy with their own character. So long as there is no active hatred, or other wickedness in their hearts, they make progress, slowly but steadily, and in that find satisfaction.
They are incapable of any great good or any great evil. They are, of course, of higher intelligence and spiritual content than even the highest of the animals; but they are among the least developed of humankind.”
We all have been at that level. We all had to start somewhere. Even less progressed spirits reside in a primitive planet. A planet, like earth was thousands of years before Christ, where humans lived to eat and take what they could, with little or no moral compunction whatsoever.
The type of humans described above, are those souls who are recent arrivals to the earth. They have been promoted from a primitive world to a planet of atonement. Earth graduated from a primitive planet, to where it is now, where spirits learn how to become civilized beings in the spirit world. Hence, this is why our incarnations on earth are referenced as training or a class.
As a collective, all or most all, beings on earth today are relatively immature, in the spirit sense of maturity. We still harm each other, we take advantage of each other, and we dismiss anyone who can’t be of use to us without regret. Some of us are beginning to learn how to love and care for all equally, but most are on the level where at least we are learning to not actively injure our fellow beings.
Some are more advanced than others. Some will progress up the ladder at a rapid pace and some will slowly climb upwards. We are a hodgepodge people on this blue orb. This is why it is incumbent on those more progressive to steer the less mature spirits on the correct path. Not to order and direct them like little children, but to provide a structure where they can make informed free-will choices and understand the consequences of mistaken actions.
If you wish to learn more about the cycle of spirit – physical self – spirit again, and what this means to your growth as a spirit, please read my book, The Case for Reincarnation – Your Path to Perfection.
Owen, R. G. (2012). The Life Beyond the Veil. Pahrump, NV: Square Circles Publishing.
Vale Owen, G. (1924). Paul and Albert. London: The Greater World Christian Spiritualist Association.
 Owen, R. G., Paul and Albert, The Greater World Christian Spiritualist Association, p. 52
 Owen, R. G., Paul and Albert, The Greater World Christian Spiritualist Association, pp. 56-57